Freezing and drying are used to stabilize
biological materials such as foodstuff, pharmaceuticals and biospecimens. Freezing and desiccation are surface-induced complex phenomena. As such,
they generate chemical, mechanical and physical stresses that produce
heterogeneity in the final product, very significantly affecting its storage
stability. In this presentation, we will explore different mechanisms of
heterogeneity-induced damage at the micro-scale and discuss ways to minimize it
to increase the quality of stabilized and stored biologicals.