This is the first of two presentations that
addresses some of the most common misconceptions in freeze-drying
(lyophilization) relating to formulations, process cycles, equipment and
We will begin by looking at some of the
issues relating to:
- Formulation design – Less is more…. or is it?!
- Glass transition vs. collapse –
Aren’t they effectively the same thing?
And do they really matter?
- Cycle development – Can’t we avoid an iterative development process?
- Secondary drying – Most people seem to use +20°C and a low
pressure, so it must be OK…
- Process condensers – The lower the temperature the better, right?